Books: The Montessori Method by Maria Montessori

The Montessori Method by Maria Montessori

If you want to learn a subject, there’s nothing like hearing it straight from the horse’s mouth. Read about The Montessori Method translated from the original manuscript written by Maria Montessori herself.

What’s in it…

CHAPTER I- A CRITICAL CONSIDERATION OF THE NEW PEDAGOGY IN ITS RELATION TO MODERN SCIENCE

  • Influence of Modern Science upon Pedagogy 1
  • Italy’s part in the development of Scientific Pedagogy 4
  • Difference between scientific technique and the scientific spirit 7
  • Direction of the preparation should be toward the spirit rather than toward the mechanism 9
  • The master to study man in the awakening of his intellectual life 12
  • Attitude of the teacher in the light of another example 13
  • The school must permit the free natural manifestations of the child if in the school Scientific Pedagogy is to be born 15
  • Stationary desks and chairs proof that the principle of slavery still informs the school 16
  • Conquest of liberty, what the school needs 19
  • What may happen to the spirit 20
  • Prizes and punishments, the bench of the soul 21
  • All human victories, all human progress, stand upon the inner force 24

CHAPTER II – HISTORY OF METHODS

  • Necessity of establishing the method peculiar to Scientific Pedagogy 28
  • Origin of educational system in use in the “Children’s Houses” 31
  • Practical application of the methods of Itard and Séguin in the Orthophrenic School at Rome 32
  • Origin of the methods for the education of deficients 33
  • Application of the methods in Germany and France 35
  • Séguin’s first didactic material was spiritual 37
  • Methods for deficients applied to the education of normal children 42
  • Social and pedagogical importance of the “Children’s Houses” 44

CHAPTER III – INAUGURAL ADDRESS DELIVERED ON THE OCCASION O F THE OPENING OF ONE OF THE “CHILDREN’S HOUSES”

  • The Quarter of San Lorenzo before and since the establishment of the “Children’s Houses” 48
  • Evil of subletting the most cruel form of usury 60
  • The problem of life more profound than that of the Intellectual elevation of the poor 52
  • Isolation of the masses of the poor, unknown to past centuries 53
  • Work of the Roman Association of Good Building and the moral importance of their reforms 56
  • The “Children’s House” earned by the parents through their care of the building 60
  • Pedagogical organization of the “Children’s House” 62
  • The “Children’s House” the first step toward the socialization of the house 65
  • The communised house in its relation to the home and to the spiritual evolution of women 66
  • Rules and regulations of the “Children’s Houses” 70

CHAPTER IV – PEDAGOGICAL METHODS USED IN THE “CHILDREN’S HOUSES”

  • Child psychology can be established only through the method of external observation 72
  • Anthropological consideration 73
  • Anthropological notes 77
  • Environment and schoolroom furnishings 80

CHAPTER V – DISCIPLINE

  • Discipline through liberty 86
  • Independence 95
  • Abolition of prizes and external forms of punishment 101
  • Biological concept of liberty in pedagogy 104

CHAPTER VI – HOW THE LESSON SHOULD BE GIVEN

  • Characteristics of the individual lessons 107
  • Method of observation the fundamental guide 108
  • Difference between the scientific and unscientific methods illustrated 109
  • First task of educators to stimulate life, leaving it then free to develop 115

CHAPTER VII – EXERCISES OF PRACTICAL LIFE

  • Suggested schedule for the “Children’s Houses” 119
  • The child must be prepared for the forms of social life and his attention attracted to these forms 121
  • Cleanlinss, order, poise, conversation 122

CHAPTER VIII – REFECTION–THE CHILD’S DIET

  • Diet must be adapted to the child’s physical nature 125
  • Foods and their preparation 126
  • Drinks 132
  • Distribution of meals 133

CHAPTER IX – MUSCULAR EDUCATION–GYMNASTICS

  • Generally accepted idea of gymnastics is inadequate 137
  • The special gymnastics necessary for little children 138
  • Other pieces of gymnastic apparatus 141
  • Free gymnastics 144
  • Educational gymnastics 144
  • Respiratory gymnastics, and labial, dental, and lingual gymnastics 147

CHAPTER X – NATURE IN EDUCATION–AGRICULTURAL LABOUR; CULTURE OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS

  • The savage of the Aveyron 149
  • Itard’s educative drama repeated in the education of little children 153
  • Gardening and horticulture basis of a method for education of children 155
  • The child initiated into observation of the phenomena of life and into foresight by way of auto-education 156
  • Children are initiated into the virtue of patience and into confident expectation, and are inspired with a feeling for nature 159
  • The child follows the natural way of development of the human race 160

CHAPTER XI – MANUAL LABOUR–THE POTTER’S ART, AND BUILDING

  • Difference between manual labour and manual gymnastics 162
  • The School of Educative Art 163
  • Archæological, historical, and artistic importance of the vase 164
  • Manufacture of diminutive bricks and construction of diminutive walls and houses 165

CHAPTER XII – EDUCATION OF THE SENSES

  • Aim of education to develop the energies 168
  • Difference in the reaction between deficient and normal children in the presentation of didactic material made up of graded stimuli 169
  • Education of the senses has as its aim the refinement of the differential perception of stimuli by means of repeated exercises 173
  • Three periods of Séguin 177

CHAPTER XIII – EDUCATION OF THE SENSES AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE DIDACTIC MATERIAL: GENERAL SENSIBILITY: THE TACTILE, THERMIC, BARIC AND STEREOGNOSTIC SENSES

  • Education of the tactile, thermic and baric senses 185
  • Education of the stereognostic sense 188
  • Education of the senses of taste and smell 190
  • Education of the sense of vision 191
  • Exercises with the three series of cards 199
  • Education of the chromatic sense 200
  • Exercise for the discrimination of sounds 203
  • Musical education 206
  • Tests for acuteness of hearing 209
  • A lesson in silence 212

CHAPTER XIV – GENERAL NOTES ON THE EDUCATION OF THE SENSES

  • Aim in education biological and social 215
  • Education of the senses makes men observers and prepares them directly for practical life 218

CHAPTER XV – INTELLECTUAL EDUCATION

  • Sense exercises a species of auto-education 224
  • Importance of an exact nomenclature, and how to teach it 225
  • Spontaneous progress of the child the greatest triumph of Scientific Pedagogy 228
  • Games of the blind 231
  • Application of the visual sense to the observation of environment 232
  • Method of using didactic material: dimensions, form, design 233
  • Free plastic work 241
  • Geometric analysis of figures 243
  • Exercises in the chromatic sense 244

CHAPTER XVI – METHOD FOR THE TEACHING OF READING AND WRITING

  • Spontaneous development of graphic language: Séguin and Itard 246
  • Necessity of a special education that shall fit man for objective observation and direct logical thought 252
  • Results of objective observation and logical thought 253
  • Not necessary to begin teaching writing with vertical strokes 257
  • Spontaneous drawing of normal children 258
  • Use of Froebel mats in teaching children sewing 260
  • Children should be taught how before they are made to execute a task 261
  • Two diverse forms of movement made in writing 262
  • Experiments made with normal children 267
  • Origin of alphabets in present use 269

CHAPTER XVII – DESCRIPTION OF THE METHOD AND DIDACTIC MATERIAL USED

  • Exercise tending to develop the muscular mechanism necessary in holding and using the instrument in writing 271
  • Didactic material for writing 271
  • Exercise tending to establish the visual-muscular imageof the alphabetic signs, and to establish the muscular memory of the movements necessary to writing 275
  • Exercises for the composition of words 281
  • Reading, the interpretation of an idea from written signs 296
  • Games for the reading of words 299
  • Games for the reading of phrases 303
  • Point education has reached in the “Children’s Houses” 307

CHAPTER XVIII – LANGUAGE IN CHILDHOOD

  • Physiological importance of graphic language 310
  • Two periods in the development of language 312
  • Analysis of speech necessary 319
  • Defects of language due to education 322

CHAPTER XIX – TEACHING OF NUMERATION: INTRODUCTION TO ARITHMETIC

  • Numbers as represented by graphic signs 328
  • Exercises for the memory of numbers 330
  • Addition and subtraction from one to twenty: multiplication and division 332
  • Lessons on decimals: arithmetic calculations beyond ten 335

CHAPTER XX – SEQUENCE OF EXERCISES

  • Sequence and grades in the presentation of material and in the exercises 338
  • First grade 338
  • Second grade 339
  • Third grade 342
  • Fourth grade 343
  • Fifth grade 345

CHAPTER XXI – GENERAL REVIEW OF DISCIPLINE

  • Discipline better than in ordinary schools 346
  • First dawning of discipline comes through work 350
  • Orderly action is the true rest for muscles intended by nature for action 354
  • The exercise that develops life consists in the repetition, not in the mere grasp of the idea 358
  • Aim of repetition that the child shall refine his senses through the exercise of attention, of comparison, of judgment 360
  • Obedience is naturally sacrifice 363
  • Obedience develops will-power and the capacity to perform the act it becomes necessary to obey 367

CHAPTER XXII – CONCLUSIONS AND IMPRESSIONS

  • The teacher has become the director of spontaneous work in the “Children’s Houses” 371
  • The problems of religious education should be solved by positive pedagogy 372
  • Spiritual influence of the “Children’s Houses” 376

Read it online for free.

Published by Shen-Li

SHEN-LI LEE is the author of “Brainchild: Secrets to Unlocking Your Child’s Potential”. She is also the founder of Figur8.net (a website on parenting, education, child development) and RightBrainChild.com (a website on Right Brain Education, cognitive development, and maximising potentials). In her spare time, she blogs on Forty, Fit & Fed, and Back to Basics.

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